Most plant resins are composed of terpenes. Specific components are alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3 carene, and sabinene, the monocyclic terpenes limonene and terpinolene, and smaller amounts of the tricyclic sesquiterpenes, longifolene, caryophyllene, and delta-cadinene. Amber is a fossil resin. But other trees also produce resin, such as alder, aspen, birch, chestnut, poplar, sweetgum, and wil­low. “Looking ahead, more acid streams based on bio-sources will be developed soon,” contends Ashland’s Moffitt. Resin is tapped from the tree and allowed to harden. These important resin producing plants include the Anacardiaceae (gum mastic), Burseraceae (incense tree), Hammamelidaceae (witch-hazel), Leguminosae, and Pinaceae (pine, spruce, fir, true cedar). You use Thomas' Supplier Discovery Platform to find Suppliers of Polyester Resins. Today, lacquer is a mixture of resin and quick-drying solvents; although in the United States, the name is used for a synthetic product. The greening of the global economy, carbon footprint sensitivity, increased emphasis on sustainable systems, and the evolution of product lifecycle analysis have led many thermoset resin manufacturers away from the oil-and-gas wellhead and back to the farm. Conifer species, clockwise from top-left: western red cedar, Douglas fir, spruce, and lodgepole pine. Copals are a group of resins extracted from leguminous forest trees and are known for their hardness and high melting point. Reichhold LLC2 (Research Triangle Park, N.C.) has developed its own bio-derived resins, trade named ENVIROLITE. Latex can contain resin, making the plant a resinous plant. They can grow to 100 feet tall with a diameter exceeding 40 inches. Incense was used in Egypt, Greece, Italy, China, India, and other places. Corn and soybeans are appealing primarily because they are available in abundance. This book is the definitive text on plant resins and represents the summation of over forty years of research on the topic by the author. The trick so far has been to cost-effectively convert corn and soybean products into the monomers required to build a resin. Factors for this softness include well-supplied markets, sluggish demand, lower global feedstock prices, and the effects of the coronavirus disrupting global production networks. INTRODUCTION Definition: Solid or semisolid, amorphous products derived from living natural sources and most are plants products, with the exception of shellac, an insect secretion. Polyester resinsare formed from the reaction of dibasic organic acids and polyhydric alcohols. “The general public, or the end-user, desires to have a green product, or what they perceive as a green product,” he says, “but, it’s rare that they are actually willing to pay for it.” Nonetheless, McAlvin reports that AOC has sold more than 20 million lb (9,070 metric tonnes) of EcoTek resin. “Nothing performs as well as PG,” McAlvin notes, “so we don’t have much motivation to use other bio-derived diols. Turpentine from certain pine trees has been used medicinally for treatment of cough, gonorrhea, and rheumatism. The production of resin is very common in nature, but only a few plant families can be considered of commercial importance to resin collectors. Amber was worn to ward off evil, including disease, since prehistoric times. Other parts of the world, such as Central America, used resins for incense as well, although from plants native to those areas. Bio-resins have substantial appeal. Although many resinous plants are not native to North America, some have established themselves here and are even considered weeds. Like Ashland’s Envirez, EcoTek is designed as a drop-in replacement for traditional UPRs and offers comparable mechanicals. Natural lacquer is simply liquid resin. For now. The most well known and highly used amber comes from conifers, mostly pines; however, these same trees are not in existence today. Ship builders have used the liquid form of resin for thousands of years. Researchers also found that these resins are capable of triggered degradation, meaning it will biodegrade in a landfill or in natural environments where waste may collect. Amber is fossilized plant resin. The importance of commercial resins are obtained from Pinaceae (rosin, amber), Leguminosae (copal) and Dipterocarpaceae (dammar) families. Some resins also contain a high proportion of resin acids. Resins are insoluble in water and are usually hard, transparent, or translucent. Propolis is a product from honey bee hives, containing chiefly beeswax and a resin obtained from diverse plant sources, such as apical buds, young leaves and exudates. of resins from various plant sources and beeswax. Amber can be found in deposits over many parts of the globe, generally in river deltas or sedimentary soils where water had washed plants downstream. Oven-cured, vacuum-bagged prepregs show promise in production primary structures. Resins can occur as part of these other compounds, such as latex. neomexicanus) gives beer its unique aroma and bitter taste. Location also affects the wastewater treatment requirements and other regulations. Eventually, the trade routes collapsed because of better shipping routes, the loss of incense trees to agriculture, the demand for wood, and a decrease of rainfall in the region. Today’s sources are plant-based, usually corn or soybean by-products from bio-diesel fuel refinement. Spruce resin softens when it is chewed and turns the mouth a reddish color. Although many resinous plants are not native to North America, some have established themselves here and are even considered weeds. The most problematic monomer, however, appears to be the common diluent styrene, a key component in thermoset crosslinking. Resins, balsams, and related substances are complex chemical products produced by specialized ducts, cavities, or metabolic by-products of trees and other plant forms. It is not mixed with any other solvents. The British Empire used resin for its navy, originally buying it from the Baltic region. In 2011, farmers planted 92.3 million acres of corn and 75 million acres of soybeans. Tabonuco (Dacroydes excelsa) is a regal rainforest tree found in El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico. It was used then as laundry soap but now as a variety of unrelated industrial products, such as adhesives, printing inks, and chewing gum. Rosin is used for the maintenance of the bows of stringed instruments such as violins because it adds extra friction. Resins for the Hot Zone, Part I: Polyimides. Many sources of resin According to the USDA Forest Ser­vice, a wide variety of plants produce resin. Since CT’s last report, however, the bio-resins push has gained some momentum. 4. Campion Boats was among the first manufacturers to commit to use of bio-resins when it decided to use Ashland Performance Materials’ (Columbus, Ohio) Envirez unsaturated polyester in all new-boat construction. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. “There are no high-performance, plant-based monomers that can take the place of petrochemical-based styrene,” notes McAlvin. Derived from phenolic acids found in plant sources, biorenewable epoxy resins, [patent pending] are naturally non-toxic. Many Sources of Resin According to the USDA Forest Service, a wide variety of plants produce resin. 1 Conifer trees are famous for it, including various species of cedar, fir, juniper, larch, pine, redwood, spruce, and yew. “Maleic anhydride may not be in five years,” he cautions, “but it’s reasonable to think it could be 10 years.” An ant preserved in amber. Like the mideastern resins, frankincense and myrrh, elephant tree resin was also used for incense by native Americans and early settlers. Plants produce many compounds that can be confused with resins. Ion Exchange resins are well suited for removal of these impurities for the following reasons: 1. In the thermoset bio-resins market today, two drivers push expansion, but two hurdles restrain faster growth. 4. Carnivorous plants such as the spoon-leaved sundew (Drosera intermedia) use mucilage to trap insects. As sources of resin disappeared along the east coast, manufacturers looked elsewhere in America for resin sources. The best known amber deposit is from the Baltic Sea in north-central and Eastern Europe. So promising is the process that ADM opened a new facility in April of this year in Decatur, Ill., to produce 100,000 metric tonnes (more than 22 million lb) of PG each year. Amber has been known to preserve insects and other small organisms that were imbedded in the resin before it hardened. High hurdles remain, but the push for sustainable sources of resin monomers is gaining momentum. EcoPoxy’s annual capacity is 20 million lb (9,070 metric tonnes), and Corsi believes there is no reason to think that won’t increase over the next few years. Color, smell and texture vary according to propolis types and plant sources. Collection of pine resin for distallation to turpentine ("cup and gutter system"). About Help … Because of the demand and use of pines for resin, the first conservation legislation in America was passed in Massachusetts, requiring permits to cut or de-bark pines. If individual sources of resin are needed for chemical anal-ysis, it may be necessary to collect the resin from plant tissue or from the hindlegs of returning resin foragers. Trees of the Dipterocarpaceae produce a resin called dammar in commerce. A bio-resin is a resin that derives some or all of its constituent monomers from biological sources. As the bow is used, the rosin heats up and develops some stickiness, providing better notes. These magnificent native giants are the dominant large tree species that formerly covered all the lower and middle slopes of the mountains of Puerto Rico. Since then, the line has expanded to cover almost all manufacturing processes and end-markets, including construction, energy, automotive and solid surface. They are very flexible and have excellent resistance to heat, chemicals, and flame. Asafoetida is the dried aromatic gum-resin exuded from the living rhizome, rootstock or taproot of varied plant species of genus Ferula. However, most species of higher plants have never been described, much less surveyed for chemical or biologically active constituents, and new sources of commercially valuable materials … AOC uses renewable PG but also has experimented with other bio-based monomers, including ethanol and 1,3-propanediol. The remaining plant structures, including their resin, fossilized and created amber. Amber is used for scientific research but it is used more widely for jewelry and art. Tabonuco (Dacroydes excelsa). They are used for construction, laminate, auto-repair of fillers, skis, fishing rods, plane and ship components, coatings, decorative accessories, and bottles. Specifically, ADM developed a process that converts soybeans into glycerol and corn into sorbitol/dextrose. The first to market with a bio-based UPR was Ashland, LLC (Columbus, Ohio), which introduced its Envirez line nine years ago and applied it first in a body panel for a John Deere tractor. AOC’s UPRs range from 10 to 30 percent bio-content and are formulated for casting, cured-in-place pipe (CIPP), closed molding and open mold laminating. They inhaled the smoke or used it in vapor baths to relieve symptoms. This is particularly true of customers that manufacture composites for the construction market, where the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program encourages use of recycled or bio-based materials. Other cultures used it to bargain for metal and necessities. Photo by Mila Zinkova. It is often considered a gemstone although it is not a mineral. Here, Envirez has been applied mostly to solid surface products for kitchen and bath use (see photo, at right). The trade of amber can be traced back to the Stone Age (3500 BCE) while the history of resin can be traced to just before 1700 BCE during the Bronze Age. The drivers are (1) increased demand from consumers and end-users for a sustainable and environmentally friendly resin, and (2) new refinery technology that can produce plant-based bio-chemicals for key resin monomers. However, they had to find a new source of resin, of which the American Colonies had plenty, due to the abundance of pine trees. US Forest Service, FM-RM-VE (3) Plant sources for amber deposits. Both the Maya and the Aztec used resin from the copal tree as incense. DuPont Tate & Lyle Bio Products Co. LLC (Loudon, Tenn.) has developed Susterra 1,3-propanediol from corn dextrose via fermentation. Corn (above) and soybeans (see next photo) are the most common crops in the U.S. and provide feedstocks for some monomers used to manufacture unsaturated polyester, replacing monomers traditionally derived from petrochemicals. #adhesives #biomaterials #bulkmoldingcompound. After the Revolutionary War, Britain went back to the Baltic for its resin stores while the new United States stored its own resin for pitch and tar. If the drivers keep driving, it appears to be just a matter of time before the hurdles fall. The endangered Puerto Rican parrot feeds on tabonuco seeds and the tree is rarely cut today. As a result, this new PG supply chain opens up a variety of green doors for resin manufacturers and their UPR customers. Geographical source: Pine trees growing in North America, Cuba, Maritime Alps and India serve as the main sources of Colophony. Scientists can extract the DNA of organisms preserved in amber and recreate parts of their DNA strands. This restricts the market for a bio-based UPR to customers whose preference for the green aspects of the resin outweigh the additional cost. Although most bio-resin activity focuses on UPR, there is one manufacturer that has developed a bio-based epoxy. It is also known as tears of Chios, being traditionally produced on the island Chios, and, like other natural resins, is produced in "tears" or droplets. These compounds include: Resins can occur as part of these other compounds, such as latex. “Building and construction has a great driver in the LEED program,” says Moffitt. As next-generation aerospace programs demand higher service temperatures in structural and hot section components, a variety of polyimides vie for program approval. Unsaturated polyester in this solid-surface sink is from AOC’s EcoTek line of bio-resins. It is logically ordered, highly technical, comprehensive in is coverage and well illustrated. Praesto AC is an example of a purpose-designed resin, specified and evaluated … The hurdles? Amber can be many colors, including green, gold, brown, red, black, and even bluish. And, as noted by John McAlvin, R&D manager at resins manufacturer AOC Resins (Collierville, Tenn.), “The source of PG is irrelevant.” That is, PG from soybeans and corn is no different than PG from oil and gas. tree resins from centuries are valued for their chemical worth, and also for valuable uses such as producing adhesives, varnishes, and … With an aim to locally produce epoxy resins and expand its production capacity in the region, Sika has commissioned a new manufacturing plant in Dubai. Resin was also used to make turpentine and rosin. Further, they have a more favorable lifecycle profile than petrochemical-based materials. Mailstop Code: 1103 What do you think of when someone says resin? Resins can be produced through the bark of a tree, the flowers of an herb, or the buds of a shrub. EcoPoxy (Providence, R.I.) joined the composites market in 2009 and makes a line of epoxies, hardeners, topcoats and adhesives with a soy-based feedstock. It is commonly used for wood finishing and other crafts to provide protection and a glossy finish. Buy Dictionary of Indian Plant Gums, Resins, Dyes and Related Products (9788190135221): Chemistry, Botany and Utilization: NHBS - MIH Farooqi, Sidrah Publishers. What do you see? Resins are stable over a wide range of temperatures. Sticky “sap” flows from the tree, essentially making a bandage over the wound that hardens and eventually fossilizes into an incredibly hard substance called amber. A variety of CIPP products are enabling the rehabilitation, rather than excavation and replacement, of underground pipe for wastewater and drinking water. There are many resinous plants all around the world. Photo by Richard Webb, Self-employed horticulurist, Bugwood.org. A bio-resin is a resin that derives some or all of its constituent monomers from biological sources. Mastic (Greek: Μαστίχα) is a resin obtained from the mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus). It is also used in artificial flavors such as lemon, peppermint, and nutmeg, as well as cosmetics. He admits, however, that, in general, the company’s bio-based monomers make Envirez resins more expensive than their all-petrochemical cousins. Resins have a very high capacity to remove ions in low concentrations. Further, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recently listed styrene as a possible human carcinogen, a decision that, if not rescinded, is likely to force suppliers to seek a short-term alternative. Resin formation occurs as a result of injury to the bark from wind, fire, lightning, or other cause. Native Americans used resin from red cedar and juniper to treat colds and rheumatism. This is the point, however, where the technological hurdle comes in. When it is burned, the hardened resin releases aromatic smoke. They reduce dependence on petrochemicals, and their price volatility allows manufacturers who use them to promote a greener product. The resins are designed for sheet molding compound (SMC), bulk molding compound (BMC), pultrusion and cast-polymer applications. Bob Moffitt, senior product manager at Ashland, says that each product in the Envirez line has been developed as a drop-in replacement for an all-petrochemical UPR and offers comparable mechanical properties in the finished part. All four are typical for a young market like this one and revolve around cost, technology and customer preference. But McAlvin also believes that cost is the only factor that prevents wider use. Because of their beauty and resistance to decay, tabonuco trees have been used for all types of furniture, cabinetwork, boat construction and boxes. Resins are most stable and can be readily regenerated. Tabonuco resin was also useful for making torches for starting fires and caulking material for boats. Source: AOC LLC. Local names: Hing, Asafetida, Ingo, Inguva Plant Sources: Ferula asafoetida and allied species (Ferula foetida and Ferula narthex). Turpentine oil is generally produced in countries that have vast tracts of pine trees. Before chicle was harvested for chewing gum, spruce resin was used for chewing. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: • On heating, they soften and finally melt. Far left and far right: Fragrant, strong-scented oleoresins from the torchwood family (Burseraceae), including frankincense ( Boswellia carteri ) and myrrh ( Commiphora abyssinica ), native trees (or large shrubs) of the Middle East desert region. Rubber rabbitbrush (Ericameria nauseosa). Trade routes began from the southern coast of Arabia to the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia regions, beginning c. 1000 BCE and ending shortly before 500 CE. AOC joined the bio-resins fray in 2010 with a line of UPRs in its EcoTek segment, which also includes styrene-free resins and resins that contain recycled chemical content. Out-of-autoclave prepregs: Hype or revolution? Rosins on the other hand are less volatile and consist, inter alia, of diterpenes. The final hurdle the bio-resins market faces is on the supply side. 1 Conifer trees are famous for it, including various species of cedar, fir, juniper, larch, pine, redwood, spruce, and yew. All of these factors must be considered when choosing an ion exchange process for a given industrial water treatment application. The procedures described below first describe how to collect resins from plants and individual bees, and then 3. Varnish is plant resin combined with a solvent and drying oil (also derived from plants) to make it easier to apply to surfaces. Part 2: Applying CT scan data analysis and visualization to composites, Composites activity expansion quickens in October, Composite Bonding & Repair Benefits and Solutions, Revisiting the Fundamentals of Light Resin Transfer Molding (LRTM), How Digital Cutting Technology Reduces Costs and Improves Flexibility. There are many resinous plants all around the world. It’s also a drop-in replacement for traditional general-purpose UPR, one that reportedly offers comparable mechanicals. Technology. The location of the plant and the raw water source will determine the raw water quality and its variability. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Photo by Teresa Prendusi. Natural resins are obtained from the viscous substances secreted from the bark of trees and the stems of other plants (see table below) that are distributed throughout the world. Soybeans, like corn, have become a source for bio-resins feedstocks. Organisms like plant leaves, flies, mosquitoes, beetles, other plant tissues, have all been preserved in amber. Today, incense is made of other plant materials, in addition to resin, such as leaves, bark, seeds, fruits, roots, and rhizomes. Developing countries around the world still use traditional methods for as long as their sources last. Resins are produced in special resin cells in plants, and are also produced when an injury occurs to the plant. The bio-based content in the Envirez line ranges from 8 to 22 percent, depending on the application and intended manufacturing process. The principal European turpentines are derived from the cluster pine (P. pinaster) and the Scotch pine (P. sylvestris), while the main sources of turpentine in the United States are the longleaf pine (P. palustris) and the slash pine (P. caribaea). Today’s sources are plant-based, usually corn or soybean by-products from bio-diesel fuel refinement. Photo by Teresa Prendusi. Plastic made from petroleum or plants like corn is among the cheapest material for things like packaging, but smaller-scale manufacturers are developing even more natural alternatives. Although ADM earns kudos for its PG manufacturing process, it must be noted that the recipe for UPR also calls for several acids and anhydrides, as well as the much-debated styrene, all of which are still produced from petrochemical feedstocks. “It’s driven a great deal of interest in environmental awareness.” In fact, one Ashland customer, Campion Boats (Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada), publicly announced in 2010 its commitment to use Envirez UPRs for all its new boat construction, a decision expected to eliminate 100,000 lb (45.4 metric tonnes) of CO2 per annum from the environment. The uses of natural gums and resins in food, medicines and in varnishes or as protective coatings go back to very early times. Amber artifacts have been found in China (from Myanmar deposits) and Central America. In these cases the source plants are preserved either in the amber, or as plant remains containing amber, and chemical analyses of the fossil resins often reinforce the relationships. Since the pine forests of the Southern United States were exhausted, and resin collection by tapping trees was getting too expensive, manufacturers started using mechanical means of refining wood by-products to collect resin. Not all these sappy liquids are resins however. The Baltic people wore amber jewelry to avoid headaches and throat problems, and in Mexico, amber carved in the shape of body parts was worn for the health of that particular body part. 2. Tar water, resin steeped in water, used to be recommended by doctors for illnesses such as smallpox, ulcers and syphilis. Turpentine was also used for astringents, stimulants, diuretics and laxatives, as well as a flea repellant. Other candidates include sugar cane, sugar beets, potatoes, lignocellulose, whey and algae. The goal, of course, is to develop bio-based sources for all the chemicals in the resin at production volumes and at prices that are competitive with petrochemical-based sources. But other trees also produce resin, such as alder, aspen, birch, chestnut, poplar, sweetgum, and willow. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia(alecrim plant, Asteraceae) have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The sources of some amber deposits have been clearly identified (Table 1). As you can imagine, it tasted like resin, which is said to be pleasing. Frankincense, also known as Olibanum, is an old-known oleogum resin obtained from the bark of trees belonging to the genera Boswellia. They tend to be low cost. Balsam, cedar, and fir needle incense. Think of a pine tree that has a missing tree limb. Resins 1. Propolis is a product from honey bee hives, containing chiefly beeswax and a resin obtained from diverse plant sources, such as apical buds, young leaves and exudates. Turpentine was traditionally used in paints, but is now used in the chemical industry as a base to produce solvents, cleaners, fragrances, dry cleaning, and insecticides. This means that a UPR with bio-based PG still relies on oil for its other ingredients and, thus, is only green-ish. Source: Ashland Performance Materials, One of the strongest drivers of bio-resin use is the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program, which awards points for use of construction materials from renewable or recycled sources. Colophony is a solid resin prepared by distilling off the volatile oil from the oleoresin obtained from various species of Pinus (Family Pinaceae).
2020 plant sources of resins