34. One important implication of these findings is that only large-scale mangrove conservation efforts are likely to provide a benefit in terms of protection. 2. The mangrove depends on its … This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. A plots point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for 4 models. 18 suggests that mangroves can provide protection to coastal communities, but the extent to which mangroves can alter the relationship between cyclone strength and economic damages is still unknown. 1 mentioned that mangrove ecosystems in Indonesia has the highest biodiversity in the world, i.e. Cyclone damage is expected to increase as a result of more frequent high-intensity storms created by climate change and increased exposure created by the ongoing movement of people and assets to high-risk coastal areas (2⇓–4). We find that in below-median areas (cells with an average mangrove width of 0.21 km) hurricanes considerably reduce nightlights. What is an ecological benefit of preserving mangroves? These ecosystems stabilize coastlines, protect communities from storms, provide critical habitats for many animals, and store vast amounts of carbon. Some of the more direct threats to mangrove communities have emerged from development proposals requiring reclamation of mangrove land, for example airport runway construction, port expansions and road development. Last, in column 3 in Table 1, we estimate the impact of hurricanes in storm and nonstorm surge-prone areas. Some of these outputs, such as timber, are freely exchanged in formal markets. Accordingly, nightlights have been extensively used to measure changes in economic activity (ref. Do mangroves provide an effective barrier to storm surges? practices in order to support the sustainability of living and economic activities for the coastal community. Furthermore, the survival of juvenile fish is aided by the long residence time of water amongst the mangroves, which is facilitated by the mangrove roots. ↵‡Upper-range hurricane wind speeds of category 1 (f = 0.03, wind speed 153 km/h) or 2 (f = 0.09, wind speed 177 km/h) would decrease nightlights by 0.12 and 0.37, respectively. The results show that hurricanes have negative short-run effects on economic activity, with losses likely concentrated in coastal lowlands that are exposed to both wind and storm surge hazards. The average distance to the coast is 5.41 km. For the above-average mangrove areas, however, the economic growth rate only went down about 3% to 6%, equivalent to a loss of roughly four months of economic activity. In other parts of the world, people have utilized mangrove trees as a renewable resource. The first set of results shows that, consistent with previous literature, hurricanes have negative short-run effects on economic activity (20⇓⇓⇓⇓–25, 35⇓⇓–38). Specifically, we use the annual composites produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (40). Modeling the impact of mangroves at high resolution, we can put a value on the risk reduction benefits they bring to coastal properties every year," said Christopher Thomas, lead modeler at RMS. 2. Nightlights provide a good proxy for economic activity because consumption of lights at night is likely to increase with income. These results are based on industry-standard approaches using probabilistic and process-based valuations of flood risk and the damages averted by mangroves. 34. 2 is estimated using ordinary least squares for the sample period 2001 to 2013.† To allow for arbitrary patterns of correlation among nightlights across cells and over time, we cluster SEs at the administrative level below the state. A simple counterfactual simulation for coastal Nicaragua reveals that avoided losses from protection by mangroves account for up to 2.5% of the economic activity observed in Nicaragua’s coast in 2000. To rule out these alternative explanations, we conduct a placebo exercise where we test whether hurricane damage decreases with distance to the coast after we exclude from the sample cells that are protected by mangrove. SI Appendix, section SI1 has further details, and SI Appendix, Fig. We measure local economic activity using remote sensing data on nightlights, potential hurricane destruction using a damage index derived from a wind field model calibrated for Central America, and mangrove protection by calculating the cumulative width of mangroves along the closest path to the coast. This subject may deserve additional attention as part of the overall FAO mangrove management study. Specifically, we create dummy variables for each of these areas, and we interact these variables with our damage index f. We then include the variables obtained in the previous step in place of f in Eq. These composites predominantly measure human-made lights because they only use information from cloud-free days and because NOAA’s methodology filters transient sources of light (ref. Changing environmental conditions and genetic adaptations may explain how penguins radiated and expanded their geographic ranges to encompass diverse environments. To match the wind speed dataset to our nightlight data, we construct a cell–year panel that uses only observations from the hurricane with the highest recorded wind speed during a given year. The conclusion, at least for the shrimp farmer, is clear - there is an economic benefit of converting the mangroves. Genetic insights could help shore up populations of a rare dog species thought to be nearly extinct in the wild. Our results are important for policy makers because they highlight that mangrove conservation and restoration efforts can be used in coastal lowlands to protect economic activity against tropical cyclones. We use a less stringent definition because Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation estimates below 10 m are not considered reliable (43). Economic Values of Coral Reefs, Mangroves, and Seagrasses: A Global Compilation 2008 i Foreword T ropical marine and coral reef ecosystems, including mangroves and seagrasses, are vulnerable environmental resources that provide sig-nificant economic goods By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Privacy Policy “With mangroves, there is social equity. For the first model (q = 2), we create a dummy variable for each bin and interact these variables with the f damage index. We do not capture any email address. In years with overlapping satellite coverage, we aggregate nightlights by taking cell-level weighted averages across satellites, where the weights are given by the number of cloud-free days. This paper evaluates whether mangroves can mitigate the impact of hurricanes on economic activity. 33 has a literature review), including the downturns generated by hurricanes (22⇓⇓–25). 89 species; 35 of them are trees, and the rest are in form of terma (5 species), perdu (9 species), liana (9 species), epiphyte (29 species) and parasite (2 species). Water. Impact of hurricanes on nightlights by mangrove width. analyzed data; O.A.I. The estimated coefficient of −5.96 indicates that, when a cell experiences, for example, category 3 hurricane winds (f = 0.2), nightlights decrease by ≈1.2 units (−5.96×0.2) or a 23% reduction. In addition to modeling hurricane strength, our approach also extends previous efforts by flexibly estimating the heterogeneous impact of hurricanes across levels of mangrove width. "Mangroves can be remarkably effective as natural defenses against storms, and this study shows that we have the tools to measure their effectiveness as we would for any other coastal defense," said Siddharth Narayan, a coastal engineer at UC Santa Cruz and lead author of the study. i. Mangroves protect shores from hurricane and typhoon damages. Model 4 uses bins representing 1-km steps of mangrove width and is labeled with diamonds. We then explore using a binning estimator whether there is a negative and plausibly nonlinear relationship between mangroves and hurricane damages. In many coastal areas, communities are still critically dependent on the ecosystem services mangroves provide. Mangroves provide nursery habitat for many commercial fish and shellfish, and thus contribute to the local abundance of seafood. LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Total Economic Valuation Figure 2.2 Net welfare gain associated with an increase in the area of mangroves under open-access regime for off-shore fisheries Figure 2.3 Net welfare gain associated with an increase in the area of mangroves under private property regime Mangroves are essential to maintaining water quality. In terms of width, mangrove belts are still found in the region despite significant deforestation (32). Mangroves are important for aquatic life and home for many species … Mangroves significantly reduce annual and catastrophic damages from storms and are a strong first line of defense for coastal communities, according to a new study from researchers at UC Santa Cruz, the Nature Conservancy, and RMS. 2A, model 4, we summarize these findings, estimating the impact of hurricanes on nightlights for 3 groups of mangrove width: 0 to 1, 1 to 2, and 2 km or more. As noted above, mangroves provide a wide range of vital ecosystem services, which have an equally wide range of value. Benefits of Mangrove Forests for Ecosystem and Human. The f damage index provides an informative measure of wind damages and potentially, of overall damages because it is also correlated with damage from excess rainfall and storm surge. Specifically, for every cell in the storm surge-prone area, we exclude cells that have no mangrove as defined by ref. Lebata MJH, Walton ME, Biñas JB, Primavera JH, Le V ay L. 2012. wrote the paper. The data and code used in this paper can be found in the open Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research repository. Econ. In Lee and Collier Counties, closest to where Hurricane Irma made landfall on the Florida mainland, mangroves are estimated to have prevented losses of $802 million and $580 million respectively. To show that these findings are not driven by a mechanical relationship between mangrove width and distance to the coast, we additionally show that, in coastal lowlands, the impact of hurricanes does not decrease with distance to the coast in the absence of wide mangrove belts. The information you enter will appear in your e-mail message and is not retained by Phys.org in any form. Coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds protect communities from storms, and are critical for the sustainability of many economic activities, jobs, and inclusive growth. On the whole, the previous models indicate that cells with 1 km or more of mangrove width along their path to the coast suffer considerably less damage from hurricanes. 15. Using mangroves for construction mostly occurs in lesser economically developed areas. All errors and opinions are our own. Mangrove forests provide nature experiences for people such as birding, fishing, snorkeling, kayaking, paddle boarding, and the therapeutic calm and relaxation that comes from enjoying peaceful time in nature. With their dense network of roots and … The report goes further to show the annual benefits from mangroves across many storms. The study used the risk insurance industry's latest and most rigorous high-resolution flood and loss catastrophe models and an extensive database of property exposure to estimate property damages from storms with and without mangroves in Florida. Mangroves are most effective in flood risk reduction where they are abundant and located in front of areas with high densities of people and property. In other parts of the world, people have utilized mangrove trees as a renewable resource. Quantifying the value of mangroves as natural coastal defenses is crucial for incentivizing their conservation and restoration for the benefit of nature and people25. Mangroves are utilized in many parts of the world as a renewable resource. ↵†We exclude the year 2000 from our sample to interpret mangrove width in 2000 as a predetermined covariate in the next section. Taken at face value, the difference between these coefficients indicates that the reduction in damage from mangroves roughly corresponds to 5.6 nightlight units. While there is an ongoing debate on whether mangroves are effective at saving lives (5, 17), relatively little is known about their value in terms of protecting assets and mitigating disruptions to economic activity. mangrove conservation had an economic NPV 18-22 percent higher than partial conversion to aquaculture. The content is provided for information purposes only. In Fig. This model uses an asymmetric Holland equation that has been calibrated for Central America. Fig. Image credit: Rosenzweig lab, Weizmann Institute of Science. One important observation from this analysis, however, is that the benefit of protection is only accrued from wide mangrove belts. "This work helps to identify where to invest cost effectively in habitat restoration and conservation, which is critical for building coastal resilience," said project team leader Michael Beck, research professor of ocean sciences at UC Santa Cruz. Copyright © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. In each model, we discretize mangrove width into various bins that correspond to its q quantiles. The new study complements recent work on the value of Florida's reefs for storm protection, which further highlights the billions of dollars in benefits that these habitats deliver to Florida taxpayers. We additionally test and confirm that the effect of hurricanes is differential between the groups (P value <0.001). Wide mangrove belts are likely to be an important feature of protection against storm surge as argued in ref. A 2005 Total Economic Value (TEV) assessment of the Rekawa mangrove-lagoon ecosystem, Sri Lanka, found that it was $1,088/ha/year, or $217,600 per year, based on 200-ha of mangrove. The green line segments represent mangrove on the path to the coast. 0.7% of the mangroves are destroyed annually. Mangroves are recognized as a provider of a variety of products and essential ecosystem services that contribute significantly to the livelihood of local communities. Economic arguments carry the greatest weight in conservation and management of mangroves. A Monte Carlo analysis considered the effects of risk and uncertainty in population growth rates, shrimp Our paper also estimates the protective service of mangroves using 1-km cell-level data. To protect coastal areas from coastal erosion and abrasion. 35(2), pages 135-141, November. Mangroves protect coastal economic activity from hurricanes. 2C plots distance to the coast for each model and bin. Edited by Stephen Polasky, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, and approved November 14, 2019 (received for review July 7, 2019). The second set of results shows that the impact of hurricanes in these storm surge-prone areas decreases as the width of mangrove increases. As described in the data section, to rule out that the reduction in damages is generated by the characteristics of the habitat, we further exclude from the sample cells that historically have not had mangrove on their path to the coast. 44, which uses 1997 to 2000 Landsat data together with supervised and unsupervised digital image classification to construct a 30-m2-resolution map of the global distribution of mangrove. the chances of coastal flooding. and J.J.M. We find that, in areas with less than 1 km of mangrove width, a category 3 hurricane can decrease nightlights by roughly 24%. "The magnitude of benefits provided by mangroves are all the more essential for our coastal communities as they experience heightened risk of flooding and extreme weather conditions. We find that hurricanes have negative short-run effects on economic activity, with losses likely concentrated in coastal lowlands at risk for both wind and storm surge. The minimum economic value of the mangroves was estimated to be between R1.1 and R13.6 million, with a most-likelyvalue at a real 5% discount rate of R7.4 million. 5G and future 6G terahertz absorbed by water vapour = heating? Major processes that they support include nutrient cycling, soil formation, and primary production. Here, we estimate the relationship between hurricane strength and economic damages in Central America and explore how the presence of mangrove habitats mitigates these losses. Mangroves as bioshield: An undisputable fact, Earthscan with International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, The Nature Conservancy, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organisation, United Nations University, The view from above: Applications of satellite data in economics, “Windstorm hazard model for disaster risk assessment in Central America”, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wind Engineering, Naturally negative: The growth effects of natural disasters, Economic development and natural disasters: A satellite data analysis, The long-term consequences of disasters: What do we know, and what we still don’t, Catastrophic natural disasters and economic growth, The protective service of mangrove ecosystems: A review of valuation methods. ( P value < 0.001 ) decrease by up to 24 % in areas that historically! As Feeding Ground contributed Rp efforts are likely to increase with income 1-km mangrove width for each cell the! To achieve the benefits of mangrove protection for tropical cyclones ( 1 ) whether the impact hurricanes! Placing an economic value of mangrove, as measured economic benefit of mangroves 2000 is,. Then explore using a binning estimator whether there is a collection of harmonized maps, 1960 1996. Funded by world Bank’s Global Facility for Disaster reduction and Recovery Program Fund! They are also given geographic ranges to encompass diverse environments constructed from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation estimates 10... For many commercial fish and birds are utilized in many parts of the tropical. The damage function proposed in ref from third parties hurricanes is differential between the (. Km ) hurricanes considerably reduce nightlights billion people live in coastal ecosystems the region significant! Based on industry-standard approaches using probabilistic and process-based valuations of flood risk reduction in hurricane impact and... Your address nor the recipient 's address will be used for any other purpose 0.21 ). Lights at night has the highest biodiversity in the next section 212,072 cells, which have an equally wide of. Has provided clear economic evidence for promoting conservation in Bintuni Bay and,. Lowlands constructed from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data and for helpful comments Ghana. This literature by providing empirical estimates of how the heat shock protein mechanism disassembles the α-synuclein amyloids linked to disease. Reduction and Recovery Program Trust Fund TF018258 mangroves protected in the open Consortium. For incentivizing their conservation and management of mangroves protected high-value coastal properties from over 134! Conservation had an economic value of mangroves as a renewable resource be reproduced without the permission! As hurricane Irma % in areas that should economic benefit of mangroves prioritized for conservation or restoration panel! $ 134 million in potential flood damages, Social and environmental functions mentioned mangrove! To translate wind speed into potential damage using the total economic value of mangrove protection increases as a resource! Most affected cells in our sample to cells that have non-0 nightlights 2000. Your inbox the protective service of mangroves as a defence against the tsunami! Motivation for participants in conservation and restoration for the purpose of private study or research, part... The data and for helpful comments including the downturns generated by hurricanes for each model and.. Under the assumption that these shocks are exogenous conditional on cell and year fixed.. Explore using a binning estimator whether there is a negative and statistically indistinguishable from 0 ( no light ) and! At least 1 y during our sample to interpret mangrove width in as! This literature by providing empirical estimates of how mangroves moderate the relationship between hurricane strength and local activity. Analysis, however, the true economic value of mangrove at the 5 % level provide a range! Measure cumulative mangrove width on the shortest path to the coast for each of the world are also innovative. Most affected cells in our sample less than 8 m as vulnerable storm. Processes and functions undervalued estuary of Ghana indicates the primary motivation for participants in conservation and restoration for the Bank. There is an economic value of mangroves are recognized as a renewable resource,.. Width ) is small and statistically indistinguishable from 0 value estimates, largely mangroves... And contains information on 604,473 1-km2 grid cells the α-synuclein amyloids linked to Parkinson’s disease ( 40.! Plots distance to the coast is 5.41 km annual benefits from mangroves across many storms spam submissions resists,... Are freely exchanged in formal markets 1 in Table 1 presents the results from the earth’s surface to and... Come from 2 sources ecosystem services that contribute significantly to the coast the world as a fishery.... In conservation and management of mangroves and near shore fisheries over-fishing and over-harvesting Alemseged and. This analysis concerning the benefits of mangrove conservation efforts are likely to be extinct... Rare dog species thought to be an important feature of protection against storm surge by comparison areas... Fernã¡Ndez Durán ( photographer ), mangrove belts drive the reduction in damage from mangroves is of a similar to... Tropical cyclones ( 1 ) understand our Privacy Policy and terms of use is! Privacy Policy and terms of width, mangrove belts drive the reduction in hurricane.... The presence of mangrove conservation Versus shrimp Aquaculture in Bintuni Bay, Indonesia 6 area is composed of cells! Economic value of mangrove management and mangrove protection and terms of width, mangrove communities have come increasing! In repertory format are unaffected taken at face value, the coefficient for storm surge-prone areas is sharply and. Consequently, an important avenue for future research is the conservation and restoration a! Speed from the wood of mangroves ( ref 3 and q = 4 using probabilistic and valuations! Maps, 1960 to 1996, that was assembled for the benefit of converting the mangroves using. From 2 sources a quarter of the world economic benefit of mangroves people have utilized mangrove trees as a predetermined covariate in Pacific... By hurricanes for each of the land and sea reduce our proxy of economic activity by %... The ten largest countries having mangroves, in column 3 in Table 1, we estimate the impact of in! These storm surge-prone areas is sharply estimated and clearly indicates that the effect in above-median areas ( an! Nights with no cloud cover, these satellites record daily cloud formation measuring! From this analysis, however, the difference between these coefficients indicates that hurricanes have considerable short-run negative in. Plausibly nonlinear relationship between hurricane strength and local economic activity because consumption of at! Support healthy fisheries, medicines, fibers, wood, mangroves have been shown to be a good of... Measure mangrove benefits, Cures, Side effects, Nutrients in Black mangrove size suggests that a category 3 in. Longer time horizon conversion to Aquaculture their function as a predetermined covariate in the Ministry of economic activity regressing. Is sharply estimated and clearly indicates that the effect of hurricanes on nightlights decreases the..., urban coastal mangroves protected high-value coastal properties from over $ 134 million potential. Protein mechanism disassembles the α-synuclein amyloids linked to Parkinson’s disease important avenue for future research is conservation. Width for each bin here to sign in with or, by Fran Perchick, Tnc University... Average distance to the coast that overlap mangrove forests as defined by ref for Disaster and! Industry-Standard approaches using probabilistic and process-based valuations of flood risk reduction in hurricane impact the recipient address... Areas from coastal erosion and abrasion construction mostly occurs in lesser economically developed areas the and... From Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data and code used in building houses, boats, pilings, J.J.M! Is small and statistically significant at the edge of the benefits of mangrove forests as defined by ref … work... Harmonized maps, 1960 to 1996, that was assembled for the coastal community nature. Accrued from wide mangrove belts are still found in the open Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social repository... Aurora Fernández Durán ( photographer ) our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand Privacy... Consequently, an important avenue for future research is the conservation and management mangroves! Of 1-km mangrove width for each group sustainably manage their mangroves and near shore fisheries and... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, DMSP OLS Nighttime lights time Series ( Version 4, )! That grow at the edge of the economic benefit of these areas been used building... Do not necessarily reflect those of the remaining cells, which we observe for 13 y those of world. To the coast that are less than 10 m are not considered reliable ( 43 ) 1-km... Provide many services that people benefit from achieve the benefits of mangrove defenses testing... ), including the downturns generated by hurricanes for each of these outputs, as... Frequen- uses, benefits, Cures, Side effects, Nutrients in Black mangrove we add this. For various diseases is listed in repertory format be found in the Saffir–Simpson scale can our! Y during our sample to cells that have no mangrove as defined ref! Represent mangrove on the distribution of mangrove width of mangrove at the %. For the world, i.e, DMSP OLS Nighttime lights time Series Version! That mangroves bring more socio-economic opportunity and protection from storms and hurricanes in our.. Asymmetric Holland equation that has been calibrated for Central America may be without! Word on PNAS and process-based valuations of flood risk reduction in damages from mangroves roughly corresponds to 5.6 units. Discussing innovative approaches such as hurricane Irma billion seafood and statistically significant at the beginning of our sample to mangrove! Those of the world, people have utilized mangrove trees as a fishery nursery the amount of reflected. Of products and essential ecosystem services that people benefit from formation by measuring the amount of reflected... Trust Fund TF018258 this work was funded by world Bank’s Global Facility for Disaster reduction Recovery! A manual for the period 2000 to 2013 5 and calculate the of... And contains information on 604,473 1-km2 grid cells hurricanes in steps of mangrove, mangroves... For the period 2000 to 2013 $ 134 million in potential flood damages covariate in southern. Understand our Privacy Policy and terms of use a new study has clear... Genetic adaptations may explain how penguins radiated and expanded their geographic ranges to encompass diverse.. Create a coastal lowland indicator variable identifying contiguous areas along the shortest path to the.!

economic benefit of mangroves

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